Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease (dermatosis) is not understanding of etiology, with a tendency to repeat itself. Causes, symptoms and methods of treatment of psoriasis is discussed in the following article. This disease is characterized by accelerate and improve the training of the cells of the top layer of the skin, skin inflammation and persistent, and deterioration of the properties of the epithelial cells of the skin. In addition to the epidermis affects the organs and systems of the body. Dermatosis is also known as psoriasisvulgaris (psoriasis).
Psoriasis is more common among young people, the debut of the usually occurs between 10 and 20 years of age. But there are cases in which the symptoms and the treatment of psoriasis was observed in children and the elderly. The disease occurs worldwide and has no clear dependence of the latitude, racial or climatic conditions of the habitat. The prevalence of the dermatosis varies in the range of 0.1-3%. In the post-Soviet space countries recorded approximately 1% of cases.
Equally often this cutaneous pathology sick men and women.
Up to the present time has not been established the true cause of the disease.There are several factors that lead to the emergence of the disease:
- The inheritance. According to the latest scientific of psoriasis is related to certain diseases dominant transmission.
- Violation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. If you suspect that psoriasis quite often appears to change these profiles in the blood that contributes to the development of cardiovascular pathology, endocrine dysfunction and the metabolic syndrome.
- The presence of chronic infectious focus in the body. In the study of psoriatic plaques often reveals a streptococcal flora. In the occurrence of genetic abnormalities may influence viral and bacterial infections, such as tonsillitis, flu.
- The failure of the immune system. Impairment of regulation of the populations of T-lymphocytes, increase of the circulation of immune complexes and an increase in titers of antibodies to DNA leading to autoimmune reactions in the epithelial cells of the skin.
Despite the fact that the causes of psoriasis are very different, this disease is considered a genetic systemic disease with a propensity for inheritance and affects the internal organs and systems.
The main element of the psoriasis are papules - tv elevation above the skin level color red blue or pink with a silvery flaky surface with horns.
Fresh eruptions more saturated color, age, with time, pale. Can be sporadic or bring the character of drain - in any case, be symptoms of psoriasis.
At the same time the papules appear as a single point of efflorescence, which will eventually increase in size and turn into psoriatic plaques of different shapes. In a patient it is possible to notice elements of the lesions in the different stages of their development.
There are symmetrical lesions, but there are exceptions in the function, what were the causes of psoriasis. Most often affects the surface of the upper and lower extremities which are bent and unbent, large joints, but the disease can affect any part of the body, including the scalp and nails. Very often there is a bone and joint disease of psoriatic arthropathy. Its prevalence is approximately 15% of all cases of psoriasis.
Skin, eruptions, which are the main symptom of psoriasis, there is quite a long time, but most of the time of aggravation replaced remission with no new lesions. For the exacerbation of psoriasis are typical of the cold season, but the seasonality may change.
For the differentiation of the disease there are several methods and attributes (psoriatic triad):
The phenomenon stearin spot occurs when psoriatic scraping element with a sharp object. During this format, many white-silver scales that mimic the flakes of stearine.
With most of the manipulation appears terminal psoriatic cinema - moist and bright surface.
The next stage is the phenomenon of blood dew, that in the knot of the surface of the wound acts as a trickle of bleeding.
Psoriatic process can be divided into several clinical stages of the disease depending on the severity of the disease:
- A progressing stage. Cool, eruptions are very often formed at the site of trauma to the skin (bite, scratch, the action of chemicals, injury, traumatic). Normally 3-7 days from the moment of the impact of trauma it is possible to identify the emergence of new elements. Notes reinforced marginal increase in the old papules, growth and fusion of the plates. Well defined psoriatic triad. Patients concerned about the obvious symptoms of psoriasis of the skin and intense itching, feeling of dryness and tightness of the skin.
- Phase stationary. The new elements of the eruption are almost not there, there is no growth. Using existing nodes of the active surface peeling. The itching is less pronounced or absent.
- Stage of paralysis. Psoriatic plaques are pale and flattened. He was itching. Edges psoriatic lesions appear at the edge of depigmentation. The activity of the inflammatory process is reduced. Begins remission, which is more typical of the summer season.
The exacerbation of the process can cause several factors:
- Exposure to high or low temperatures.
- A great deal of stress and emotional instability.
- The worsening or onset of other diseases.
- The intake of alcohol and strong errors in the diet.
When precisely defined the causes and treatment of psoriasis is carried out according to the appropriate techniques, positive dynamics will not be the case.
Clinical interest in disease of the psoriasis is in the period of the advanced stage in which there is at the height of the disease and active eruption.
Also klassificeret severity of the disease and to distinguish the two forms.Simple or psoriasis vulgaris has several varieties depending on the shape and localization elements:
- the palms and the soles of the feet. Most often, the cause of this disease is related to employment and are observed in people performing intense physical activity. This form of the disease is isolated and only affects the hands and feet. The eruptions are in the form of rounded plaques, often, painful cracks in them. Except for the skin of feet and hands, often affects the nail plate, marked by degenerative changes, deformation, color change, onycholysis.
- Actinic. The primary lesion of psoriasis is on the scalp. In addition, the pathological process may spread to the face, neck, back and chest. More common in people prone to oily seborrhea and metabolic disorders of the metabolic processes.
- Tear-shaped. This species is distributed throughout the body. Psoriatic elements of small size (4-5 mm) are not affected by the drain.
- Folded. The Lesions are located in the skin folds – armpits, the genitals in women under the Breasts, in the umbilical depression, between the buttocks and the perineum. Elements of the rash of bright red color, virtually no flakes, have clear borders and a smooth, slightly wet surface. This form often affects the elderly and children, as well as patients with diabetes mellitus. In children dermatosis tends to the adhesion of the plates, forming large pockets. Sometimes, papules on the genitals - these are the only signs of psoriasis. In this case, it is necessary to distinguish them from lesions in other diseases.
- Warts. Are more likely in people with excess body weight. Typically occurs in the gluteal and lumbar region and in the long-term progression of psoriasis. Can be transformed to another form under the influence of the agent microbial: pyoderma or viral flora. The lesions of dermatosis with strong wet and shining swelling, covered with yellow and gray of the bark. With time, the process ends deep infiltration and the growth of the warts.
The second severe form of psoriasis, which in turn has several variants of the disease:
- The more and more dangerous. This variant of psoriasis occurs under the influence of various endogenous precipitating factors: stress, excess sun exposure, corticosteroid therapy, but most often the cause cannot be established. Patients noted the allergic Hyper-reaction, and the inhibition parameters, immunological, and affects the internal organs. When there are symptoms and causes of psoriasis, the skin of the entire body bloodshot, with purple and abundant destruction of a different nature. In the whole body, the symptoms are not the same. Patients complain of weakness and discomfort. There is an increase of lymph nodes, dystrophic nail involvement, an intense loss of hair. When protracted course, the disease causes an imbalance of metabolic processes in the body, problems in the cardiovascular system and kidney.
- Psoriatic arthritis. Along with papular rash in these patients produced alterations of the joints. Disease are more susceptible to young men and middle-aged, pathology scant characteristic clinical symptoms and a clear manifestation on x-ray. This is the most difficult and complicated form of psoriasis, which leads to the disability, and in some cases deadly. Affected limbs according to the type of arthritis, the small joints of the hands and feet, the spine. Joint manifestations occur in about 4-6 years from the onset of the disease, sometimes simultaneously with eruptions of the skin. The x-ray viewing axis of osteoporosis, the reduction of the joint space, the appearance of osteophytes.
- Pustular. This type of dermatosis is divided into two types: simple and General. In the simple type of pustular psoriasis on the feet and the palms appear symmetrical rashes, pustules, erythematous skin with this body can also be papular elements. The General shape of the patient's condition is severe, there is fever, weakness, and leukocytosis. Massive eruptions on the skin of the whole body in the form of a special fuzzy, bright red lesions and small papules, forming a brownish-yellow crust. This type of dermatitis develops secondarily and has a tendency to degenerate, ending in death. Therefore, the symptoms, causes and treatment of psoriasis, must be kept under strict medical supervision.In addition to the main types of psoriasis, there are many ways and atypical movements of the process.
When the disease psoriasis and the choice of treatment take into account many factors. But always approach to the treatment of complex diseases.All patients with psoriasis , it is recommended to improve your eating habits:
- A diet balanced in proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- To eat more fruits and vegetables, especially in the family Solanaceae.
- Avoid foods with preservatives and flavor additives, fast food.
- To abandon admission of alcohol and strong tea and coffee.
- We must try to avoid situations of stress, in addition to relax and sleep well.
Depending on the causes of psoriasis, type and severity safe drug therapy prescribed.For mild severity of the disease usually prescribe these groups of basic drugs of the therapy:
- Drugs that reduce vascular permeability, antihistamines.
- Sedatives and tranquillizers.
- Detoxification of drugs in the internal sphere of the administration, and plasma substitutes.
- Ointments with corticosteroids, Nsaids, tar, etc.
With moderate and severe course of the disease, in addition to the basic therapy applied:
- Corticosteroids in the form of tablets and injections.
- The cytostatics.
- The immunomodulators.
Effective treatment of psoriasis involves the widespread use of methods of physical therapy effects, in particular, the selective photochemotherapy and phototherapy (a complex effect of UV rays broad spectrum of the photosensitizer). Healing with photochemotherapy gives excellent results.
Selective phototherapy with simultaneous application of vitamin A has shown good results for treatment of dermatosis smooth. Apparatus for the carrying out of the procedure compact, which you can use to treat psoriasis at home.
Execution severe forms of the disease may cause a malfunction of organs: liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system, severe metabolic disorders.
Psoriatic arthritis due to degenerative changes in the bone system, it is full of dislocations, subluxations and fractures. This type of dermatosis is often leads to disability.
The General forms of psoriasis is progressing rapidly and can lead to death. Therefore, even slight symptoms of psoriasis, the skin should not be left without attention as soon as possible to consult a doctor.
Regardless of that he pointed out the symptoms and causes of psoriasis, all actions aimed at the normalization of the diet, the routine and the rest. Given the hereditary transmission of psoriasis is a child to monitor their health, to undergo medical checkups, eat well, and avoid stress.
Because this illness affects the liver, in the preventive purposes should be excluded from the diet citrus fruits, fruits, sweets, smoked and fried foods, canned foods, prepared foods, etc.
In the period of remission of active process it is recommended a Spa treatment, employment, physical therapy, massage.